India Toolkit: Advocacy
Mapping & Listing of Urban Slums
Identifying Residents in Need of Services
Purpose: To assist the Chief Medical and Health Officers (CMHO/CDMO/CMO) in identifying all the slums (registered/unregistered) and poverty clusters, and categorizing them based on their vulnerability to achieve better planning of health services including Family Planning (FP). This will enable Urban Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and ASHA facilitators/Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) to better understand their respective operational areas, including vulnerable groups/communities.
- District Program Managers
- Urban Health Coordinators
- ASHA Facilitators/ANMs
- Health Education Officers
- Other concerned authorities
Background: The accessibility of health care facilities is a major concern among the slum and vulnerable population and knowledge of the location of this population segment is critical for the positioning of health facilities under the NUHM guidelines and allocating resources for the same under the Program Implementation Plan (PIP). To identify these locations, mapping and listing of poverty clusters and unregistered slums is a key activity under the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
This mapping exercise is also critical for ASHAs and ANMs to provide services to vulnerable individuals in their catchment areas.
Evidence of the Importance of Mapping and Listing Urban Slums
Rapid urbanization is producing a growing landscape of poor urban settlements. New poverty clusters are continuously being formed and some of the older registered slums are expanding.
The Urban Health Initiative (UHI) found large variations between the District Urban Development Agency (DUDA) enlisted slums and the actual poverty settlements in the project cities. The UHI community volunteers used data from DUDA and triangulated the information with community level stakeholders, their own mapping and listing data of their catchment areas and data from GIS maps. During this exercise, it was found that the DUDA data had underestimated the actual number of slums by 21% to 46% as they had included only registered slums, and missed unregistered colonies / smaller pockets of the vulnerable population. The adjacent box shows the discrepancy in the data on number of slums in three of the UHI cities. The -updated data was used in the PIP to gain increased funding for program activities in the cities where UHI was operational. This enabled better allocation of community volunteers and resources for meeting the needs of the whole slum population.
Guidance on Improving the Urban Slum Population Database
Mapping of the unregistered slums and poverty clusters is overseen by the Urban Health Coordinator, while the listing of households is undertaken by the ASHAs with support from other front-line workers.
Identify Local Data Points
Create Lists and Maps
Verify and Finalize List
- Physically verify the existence of the slums and poverty clusters that are listed only once.
- Check the community maps and listings with community residents for completeness.
- Finalize the lists of the urban locations of vulnerable population and share with the district authorities.
- Support the ASHAs to list all the households in their catchment areas in the Urban Health Index register.
- These lists need to be updated on an ongoing basis.
- Mapping of community resources such as Anganwadi Centres, UPHCs, private providers and chemists can also be useful.
Use the Mapping and Listing Data
- The district health authorities should use the maps created for the slum and vulnerable urban population to review the total resources needed, and request the necessary funds under the PIP.
- The data should be shared with the District Health Society and other departments such as the ICDS, National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM), Municipal Corporations, DUDA etc.
The district health authorities should use the slum and vulnerable urban population maps created to review the total resources needed, and request the necessary funds under the PIP.
The data should be shared with the District Health Society and other departments such as ICDS, National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM), Municipal Corporations, DUDA etc.
Roles and Responsibilities
|Nodal Officer – Urban Health and FP||
|Urban Health Coordinator||
|Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)||
|Mahila Arogya Samiti (MAS)||
Monitoring Progress in Creating an Accurate Database for Urban Health
The mapping and listing data should be updated on an annual basis. The following indicators should be monitored:
- Percentage of ASHAs who have visited all the households in their catchment area and updated their household lists over a period of three months
- Whether annual PIP requests are based on updated population data
The costs incurred in creating an updated database of the urban vulnerable population include the following. Though these costs are usually included in the PIP, however if these are not included then the following items should be planned and budgeted for in the PIP)
|Cost Element||FMR Code||Source|
|GIS Mapping||P.1||ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP|
|Stakeholders meetings||P.2.2.3||ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP|
|Mobility support to ANM for supporting U-ASHA||P.4.5.3||ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP|
Mobility support to MoIC, DPM, CPM, Urban
|P.2.2.2||ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP|
|Stationary and Printing||P.2.2.3||ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP|
*Refer to ROP 2016-17, NHM-UP
This table is indicative and illustrates the manner in which cost elements are provisioned in a government PIP, thus giving guidance to the audience on where to look for elements related to a particular task, such as ‘Mapping and Listing’.
The ongoing update of household listing by the ASHAs will be sustained if the importance of this activity is emphasized upon in their initial training, the refreshers, the periodic review meetings and during the on-going supervision.
Since the required budget for supporting the updating of city maps is available or can be requested through the PIP, the mapping and listing exercise can be sustained if the CMHO/CDMO/CMO takes the initiative to issue a directive for this activity, annually or as needed.
Disclaimer: This document is based on the learnings collated from Urban Health Initiative (supported by BMGF), Health of the Urban Poor (supported by USAID) and Expanded Access and Quality (EAQ) to broaden method choice in Uttar Pradesh (supported by BMGF). This document is not prescriptive in nature but provides overall guidance of how this particular aspect was dealt with in these projects for possible adoption and adaptation.